Endometriosis is a condition wherein the tissue lining the inner layer of the womb (endometrium) if found outside the womb. It’s usually seen in the pelvis (lower part of the tummy), mainly on the ovaries. This is a common non-cancerous condition, affecting around 1 in 10 women. This condition is commonly seen in young women who are in reproductive age group.
What causes endometriosis?
- Exact cause why some women develop endometriosis is not known
Does it run in family?
- This condition can run in the family; you are likely to develop endometriosis if your mom or sister has had it.
What are the symptoms?
- Pain during periods (dysmenorrhoea), most women complain that over the years severity of pain is increasing
- Persistent pelvic pain
- Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), mainly with deep penetration.
- Sometime when there is endometriosis on to your bowel you can have pain with your bowel movements, pain while passing urine and these symptoms can be sever during your menstruation
- If you have endometriosis of ovary which has formed a cyst, then sometimes this cyst can twist (torsion) of rupture and you be in sever pain with vomiting
- Sometimes it can cause infertility
What test will be required for diagnosis?
- You will need a through physical examination (feeling the tummy and internal examination)
- Ultrasound scan (USG) / MRI / CT may be required
- To make accurate diagnosis and the severity of endometriosis, laparoscopy (passing telescope into you tummy) is almost always necessary.
What are the treatment options available?
Treatment options will vary depending on your age, severity of the condition and if it is causing infertility.
- Pain killers (analgesics): to help you relieve your pain
- Hormonal treatment: there are different types of hormonal treatment that may be offered to you depending on your symptoms. Principle of giving hormonal treatment is to reduce or stop your ovulation (release of egg from your ovary), by doing so there is a chance that your endometriosis shrinks. You need to remember that such hormonal treatment given will also prevent you from becoming pregnant.
Surgery: when medical management fails or you have sever problem then you may be offered surgery (key hole/laparosocpy or open surgery)