Cystitis means inflammation of the bladder where in it becomes irritated, red, or swollen.  Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the major cause of cystitis, however, it is not the only cause.   Certain medications or sanitary products can also cause cystitis.  Cystitis develops suddenly and can be cured within a few days, although interstitial cystitis is chronic and can last for a long period.  Cystitis can affect both men and women, but women are at more risk of developing cystitis

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of cystitis include frequent urination, incomplete emptying of the bladder, cloudy or foul smelling urine, fever, abdominal cramps, etc.  In some cases, kidneys can also become infected due to cystitis and this can become a serious problem.

What are the causes?

Urinary tract infection is the main culprit to cause cystitis.  Other causes include certain medications, exposure to radiation, catheter use or sanitary wear.  Even diabetes and kidney stones are known to cause cystitis.

What tests will be required for diagnosis?

The first step to diagnose cystitis is to check the urine for urinary tract infection. procedures to diagnose cystitis include cystoscopy or radiographic investigations.

What are the treatment options available?

Bacterial cystitis is commonly treated by taking antibiotics. In case of interstitial cystitis, medications are prescribed depending on its cause.  Surgery is done for chronic cystitis when other measures fail. There are certain home care measures that can ease pain and discomfort which include heating pads, over the counter pain medications, sitz baths and drinking plenty of fluids.