Uterine bleeding occurring after menstruation has stopped (menopause) is referred to as postmenopausal bleeding (PMB).
Various conditions are responsible for postmenopausal bleeding
- Polyps: These are masses that grow in the inside of the uterus or cervix.
- Endometrial atrophy (thinning of the uterine lining): During menopause, hormone production is low and this may result in thinning of the uterine lining which can cause bleeding.
- Endometrial hyperplasia (thickening of the uterine lining): During menopause due to hormonal imbalance the uterine lining may thicken which can result in bleeding.
- Cancer: Endometrial and uterine cancer can cause bleeding during menopause.
- Medications: Certain hormonal medication and blood thinners can cause bleeding during menopause.
- Bleeding after menopause
- Bloody discharge from the vagina
- White discharge with blood tinge
The first step to determine the cause of postmenopausal bleeding is to take medical history and perform physical examination. Diagnostic procedures include ultrasound done through the vagina, endometrial biopsy, sonohysterography and hysteroscopy.
There are various treatments depending on the cause of the bleeding. Medications include hormone replacement therapy of Estrogen and Progestin and surgical intervention in the form of hysteroscopy, hysterectomy and dilatation and curettage.