Updated: Oct 25, 2020
Endometriosis is a condition wherein the tissue lining the inner layer of the womb (endometrium) is found outside the womb. It’s usually seen in the pelvis (lower part of the tummy), mainly on the ovaries. This is a common non-cancerous condition, affecting around 1 in 10 women. This condition is commonly seen in young women who are in the reproductive age group.
What causes endometriosis?
The exact cause of why some women develop endometriosis is not known
Does it run in family?
This condition can run in the family; you are likely to develop endometriosis if your mom or sister has had it.
What are the symptoms?
Pain during periods (dysmenorrhoea), most women complain that over the years the severity of pain is increasing
Persistent pelvic pain
Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), mainly with deep penetration.
Sometime when there is endometriosis on to your bowel you can have pain with your bowel movements, pain while passing urine and these symptoms can be severe during your menstruation
If you have endometriosis of the ovary which has formed a cyst, then sometimes this cyst can twist (torsion) of rupture and you be in severe pain with vomiting
Sometimes it can cause infertility
What test will be required for diagnosis?
You will need a thorough physical examination (feeling the tummy and internal examination)
Ultrasound scan (USG) / MRI / CT may be required
To make an accurate diagnosis and the severity of endometriosis, laparoscopy (passing telescope into your tummy) is almost always necessary.
What are the treatment options available?
Treatment options will vary depending on your age, the severity of the condition, and if it is causing infertility.
Pain killers (analgesics): to help you relieve your pain
Hormonal treatment: there are different types of hormonal treatments that may be offered to you depending on your symptoms. The principle of giving hormonal treatment is to reduce or stop your ovulation (release of an egg from your ovary), by doing so there is a chance that your endometriosis shrinks. You need to remember that such hormonal treatment given will also prevent you from becoming pregnant.
Surgery: when medical management fails or you have a severe problem then you may be offered surgery (keyhole/laparoscopic or open surgery)